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Red List of Plants and Animals of the Republic of Croatia

Did you know?
- according to scientific estimates, 130 species go extinct every day, and most of these have not even been described yet?
- the current period is considered to be the sixth period of massive extinction in the Earth's history?
- the first red books were published 40 years ago, and threats have been estimated for some 50,000 species to date?
Though Croatia can boast of having exceptional diversity of its living world, many species in Croatia are on the brink of extinction. If they are recognized in time, their threats are assessed according to the criteria of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and they are classified into the appropriate threat category. Taxa for which the threat category have been determined are then included on the red lists and red books of threatened taxa of Croatia. The first red lists and red books in Croatia were prepared in the 1990s, though the first systematic project to compile the red books according to the IUCN criteria was launched in 2000, and the first red book entitled Red Book of Threatened Birds of Croatia was published in 2003.Experts involved in research on specific groups of organism are involved in the creation of the red lists and books, including experts from the State Institute of Nature Protection and other scientific institutions.

IUCN and criteria
The standards for compilation of the red books and the rules and criteria for the assessment of threat to wild taxa were developed by the IUCN, the world's most prominent authority for the assessment of threats to the living world and its conservation. The IUCN keeps a global database of threatened organisms and publishes red lists and red books of species threatened at a global scale. At the end of 2009, representatives of the IUCN held a workshop in Croatia on the application of IUCN criteria for the determination of threat categories. The workshop was organized by the State Institute for Nature Protection and was aimed at standardizing and improving procedures in the compilation of red lists and red books in Croatia.
The IUCN is the world's leading organization for the assessment of threat and conservation of the living world. It consists of 80 member states, 112 state agencies and more than 800 non-governmental organisations. An important part of the IUCN is the Red List Union that coordinates the compilation and publication of red lists. Data for the creation of red lists is collected and prepared by the Species Survival Commission, which is made up of more than 7000 volunteer experts distributed into more than 100 specialist groups.
According to the IUCN, there are nine threat categories:
EX - Extinct A taxon is extinct when there is no longer any doubt that the last individual has died. A taxon may be considered extinct if not a single individual can be found during intensive research in its known or assumed habitat at the time period which corresponds to its life cycle.
EW - Extinct in the Wild A taxon that exists only in breeding grounds, captivity or as a naturalised population outside its native distribution range. Like in the previous category, a taxon may be considered extinct in the wild if not a single individual can be found during intensive research in its known or assumed habitat at the time period which corresponds to its life cycle.
RE - Regionally Extinct A taxon extinct in an area covered by a red list or red book. Like the remaining "extinct" categories, comprehensive research must be carried out in order to proclaim a taxon as regionally extinct.
CR - Critically Endangered A taxon subject to extremely high risks of extinction in the wild.
EN - Endangered A taxon facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild.
VU -Vulnerable A taxon facing a high risk of extinction in the wild.
NT - Near Threatened A taxon which is presently not endangered, but could become so in the near future.
LC - Least Concern A taxon that does not belong in any of the above categories of endangerment. This group includes the widely distributed and abundant species.
DD - Data Deficient A taxon for which data on distribution and/or population status are lacking in order to directly or indirectly assess its risk of extinction. This category is not a threat category, but instead indicates the need to collect new data on the taxa in order to be able to determine its category of endangerment.
NE- Not examined A taxon is Not Evaluated when it is has not yet been evaluated against the criteria.


What is the Red List?
The Red List consists of lists of endangered taxa in the Republic of Croatia, with their appropriate categories of threat according to the IUCN criteria.
Fifteen red lists have been compiled to date: birds, mammals, reptiles and amphibians, freshwater fish, marine fish, day butterflies, dragonflies, ground beetles, stoneflies, cave fauna, corals, terrestrial and freshwater gastropods, lichens, fungi and vascular flora. In the begining of 2012, red list of sea algeas and sea grasses and red list of freshwater crustaceans should be published. After a red list is compiled, the next step is to create the red book for the same group. During this process, the red list is revised and threat categories changed where needed in line with the most recent data.

What is the Red Book?
A Red Book represents a publication that unites all the data on threatened species or taxa. During preparation of a red book, the existing red list of threatened taxa of the same taxonomic group, or category of threat of individual taxa, are revised according to the newest data. Complete information is compiled for each taxon, including the description and biology of the species, its distribution, its ecological characteristics, existing legal protection and, most importantly, a list of causes of threats to the taxon and proposed conservation measures, with a photograph or sketch of the species and a map of its distribution in Croatia. A total of nine red books have been published to 2011: birds, mammals, amphibians and reptiles, freshwater fish, marine fish, dragonflies, cave fauna, fungi and vascular flora.
Red books to be published in 2012 include new red book of day butterflies, and revised red books for birds and for reptiles and amphibians.
What are the Red Lists and Red Books used for?

The Red Books serve to recognise threatened taxa and the level and causes of their threats, for the purpose of determining priority measures for their conservation.
After a red book is compiled, it continues to serve as an expert basis that, in consideration of other aspects such as economic or cultural aspects, facilitate the legal protection of the threatened taxa, either as protected or strictly protected taxa. The most threatened taxa are proclaimed strictly protected under the Nature Protection Act, while all others are proclaimed protected.
Search the Red List of Threatened Plants and Animals in the Republic of Croatia

Taxonomic groups with assessed threat status (primary author listed in bold): the Red Lists compiled to date can be downloaded below, under the heading documents.
Skupina / Group Nositelj obrade / Institution Autori / Authors
Gljive / Fungi Hrvatsko mikološko društvo / Croatian mycological society Zdenko Tkalčec Armin Mešić Neven Matočec
Vaskularna flora / Vascular flora Botanički zavod PMF -a, Zagreb / Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Zagreb Toni Nikolić Jasenka Topić i sur. / et al.
Sisavci /Mammals Hrvatski prirodoslovni muzej, Zagreb / Croatian Natural History Museum, Zagreb Jasna Antolović Emil Flajšman Alojzije Frković
Marin Grgurev Marijan Grubešić Danijela Hamidović
Draško Holcer Igor Pavlinić Nikola Tvrtković
Ptice / Birds Zavod za orintologiju HAZU, Zagreb / Institute for Orinthology of CASA, Zagreb Davor Ćiković Jelena Kralj Dragan Radović
Vesna Tutiš    
Gmazovi /Reptiles Hrvatski prirodoslovni muzej, Zagreb / Croatian Natural History Museum, Zagreb Biljana Hutinec Eduard Kletečki Bojan Lazar
Martina Podnar-Lešić Jure Skejić Nikola Tvrtković
Vodozemci /Amphibians Hrvatski prirodoslovni muzej, Zagreb / Croatian Natural History Museum, Zagreb Eduard Kletečki Nikola Tvrtković -
Slatkovodne ribe / Freshwater fish Zoologijski zavod PMF-a, Zagreb / Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Zagreb Ivana Buj Marko Ćaleta Milorad Mrakovčić
Perica Mustafić Davor Zanella  
Morske ribe /Saltwater fish Institut za oceanografiju i ribarstvo / Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries Ivan Jardas Armin Pallaoro Nedo Vrgoć
Danji leptiri /Butterflies Hrvatski prirodoslovni muzej, Zagreb / Croatian Natural History Museum, Zagreb Mladen Kučinić Martina Šašić -
Vretenca /Dragonflies - Anita Belančić Tomislav Bogdanović Matija Franković
Maša Ljuština Nino Mihoković Boria Vitas
Špiljske fauna / Cave fauna    Hrvatsko biospeleološko društvo/ Croatian Biospeleological Society, Zagreb Roman Ozimec Jana Bedek Sanja Gottstein
Branko Jalžić Rajko Slapnik Vesna Štamol
Helena Bilandžija Tvrtko Dražina Eduard Kletečki
Ana Komerički Marko Lukić Martina Pavlek
Koralji / Corals Zoologijski zavod PMF-a, Zagreb / Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Zagreb Petar Kružić    
Trčci / Ground beetles Narodni muzej Zadar /Zadar Regional Museum Snježana Vujčić-Karlo   Lucija Šerić Jelaska
Zoologijski zavod PMF-a, Zagreb / Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Zagreb Andreja Brigić   Boris Hrašovec
Prirodoslovni muzej i zoološki vrt u Splitu /Museum of Natural History and the Zoo Bože Kokan    
Šumarski fakultet u Zagrebu / Faculty Of Forestry University Of Zagreb      
Lišajevi /Lichens   Siniša Ozmec   Anamarija Partl
Obalčari /Stoneflies Zoologijski zavod PMF-a, Zagreb / Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Zagreb Aleksandar Popijač    
In 2000, the former Ministry of Environmental Protection and Physical Planning launched the project Red Books of the Republic of Croatia. Following the establishment of the State Institute of Nature Protection, this project has continued. In cooperation with experts from competent scientific institutions, the results of many years of research into individual groups and taxa of plants, fungi and animals have been compiled so as to allow for the most effective linking of science and practical conservation.
Group Number of plant and animal taxa covered in the Red List, by groups and by IUCN categories:  
Vascular flora 1 10 90 62 71 186 0 340 760
Fungi 0 0 55 77 119 0 0 63 314
Lichens 0 0 3 11 32 8 2   56
Mammals 0 5 0 4 3 21 1 8 42
Bird - nesting 0 13 17 23 14 36 34 10 147
Bird - non-nesting 0 2 3 10 2 19 9 1 46
Reptiles 0 0 2 2 0 6 0 6 16
Amphibians 0 0 1 1 2 3 0 1 8
Freshwater fish 0 6 15 20 29 11 2 8 91
Marine fish 0 3 5 8 11 28 36 32 123
Butterflies 0 0 5 2 4 10 0 17 38
Dragonflies 0 2 6 5 5 12 0 6 36
Ground beetles 0 0 38 35 63 76 143 40 395
Stoneflies 0 2 1 3 11 4 26 35 82
Corals 0 0 8 20 37 7 13 31 116
Cave fauna 0 0 65 49 70 0 0 2 186
UKUPNO 1 43 314 332 473 427 266 600 2456